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The greatest injustice meted out by Hindu religion to the aborigins-the Backward classes, the Scheduled Castes, and the Scheduled Tribes is that they were deprived of their right to education. That was the polity observed by all the Hindu kings and Muslim Nawabs right from the 4th Century A.D. to the early 19th Century. Neither the Hindu kings nor the Musalman Nawabs were benevolent enough to open public schools meant for people belonging to all stratas. The Hindu kings opened Vedic Petasalas where Vedas were taught to the Brahmins only. The non-brahmins were not entitled to enter Veda Patasalas.

Likewise Musalmans opened only Arabic Schools or Madarasas where the tenets of Holy Quoran and Shariats were taught to Muslims alone. Thus the greatest number of downtrodden classes were prevented from getting education worthwhile, for a period of 2000 years.

vp singh It was only the British rulers who opened public schools in 1835 where Hindus, Mohamadans and all other classes of people could get enrolled for education.The untouchable castes were able to enter into public schools only after 1900.

As such there were no candidates from among the BCs, SCs and STs who could enter into Government services till 1920.It was possible for all sections of population-brahmins, non-brahmins, scheduled castes among the Hindus and Muslims and Christians get opportunities to secure education upto Matriculation and become eligible to enter into Government services around the year 1920. It was under the Justice Party rule in Madras Presidency where all the 100% of places in education and employment were distributed among all the 5 segments of the total population during 1927. It was according to the programme of the Justice Party which ruled during 1920- 1937.

Periyar E.V. Ramasamy demanded that the BCs and SCs should be granted proportionate reservation in both education and employment in 1934. The Congress Government granted exclusive reservation to the BCs among non-brahmins in 1947.

Besides, Periyar E.V.Ramasamy, Rajah of Bobbili and A. Ramasamy Mudaliar pressurised the Government of India to sanction stipulated percentages of reservation to the brahmins, non-brahmins and the scheduled 2 castes in all the central government offices situated within the Madras Presidency in 1934.

That was conceded to by the Government of India in 1935 and implemented from 1936 to 1947. Immediately after the Britishers quit in 1947, the above mode of reservation was abolished in September 1947.Thereafter came the Constitution of India in 1950. The Constitution came in to implementation in 1950. There was aample provision in Article 16(4) to grant reservation to ‘any backward class of citizens’, which in the opinion of the state was not adequately represented in the services of the state. The term “any backward class of citizens” meant the socially and educationally backward classes, the scheduled castes and the schedued tribes as per Article 338(3), now Article 338(10) which found place in the Constitution in 1950. On the strength of the provision the Backward classes, The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes ought to have been granted proportionate reservation in employment under the government of India and under the provincial Governments or the State Governments. Since there was no list of backward classes till 1955 such reservation could not be granted to the backward classes till 1955. Though the first Backward Classes Commission, called Kalelkar Commission prepared a list of backward classes. The Jawaharlal Nehru government refused to accept the list of backward classes and pegionhold it.

In the meantime Baba Saheb Dr. B.R.Ambedkar had secured 8.3% of reservation to the Scheduled Castes in all the central government services on and from 11.08.1943.Later in 1946 he himself got it increased to 12.5% being in proportion to their respective strength in population.

Though the Scheduled Castes had been enjoyng reservation in central services from 1943 onwards, their share in class I services in central government was only 12, 281 out of the total number of 97, 951 class I posts as on 1.11.2008. The Scheduled Castes who constitue 17% of the Indian population today had secured 12,281 posts whereas the upper castes who constitute ony 17.5% of the population had grabed 75,585 posts out of the total 97,951 Class I posts. In Class II services out of the total 1,40,223 posts, the upper castes who constitute 17.5% had knocked down 1,06,283 posts whereas the SCs who constitute 17% had secured only 20,880 posts as on 1.11.2008. That is the upper castes had knocked down 78% in Class I posts and 77% in class II posts, as on 1-11-2008.

The position of the backward classes is deplorable Till 1978 there was no effective move from the backward classes to secure reservation in central government education and employment. In 1978 the Marxist Periyarist Communist Party headed by V.Anaimuthu and the Bihar Backward classes Federation headed by Ram Awadhesh Singh took measures to create awakening among the backward classes and scheduled castes in the north as well as in the south during September and October 1978. As a result of the agitation held in Patna between 19.10.1978 and 31.10.1978, the Morarji Desai government came forward to consitute the Second Backward Classes Commission on 1.1.1979. That commission was headed by Bindeswari Prasad Mandal-B.P. Mandal, which presented its report to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 31.12.1980. Indira Gandhi was not interested in placing the report in the Parliament. Because of the pressure exerted by the Marxist Periyarist Communist party by observing the 26th January 1982, the Republic Day as a mourning day and hoisting black flags in the houses of the members of the party as a symbol of mourning on that day, Giani Zail Singh, the then Home Minister came forward to present the report in the Parliament and he did it. But the Congress Government was not sincere in implementing the recommendations of the Mandal Commission.

It was Viswanath Pratab Singh, the celebrated Prime Minster of India who came forward to grant 27% of reservation in central government services and central government public sector services on 6-8- 1990. But he did not grant reservation in central government education. However the subsequent Congress Government presided by P.V. Narasimha Rao modified the order passed by V.P. Singh and stipulated a condition that while implementing 27% reservation to BCs, the economically advanced section among the BCs should be deleted from the ambit of enjoying reservation. At last it was only in 1994 that the socially and educationally backward classes tasted the reservation in employment. In India today, 48% of the Hindus and 10% from the religious minorities, all put together 58% belong to BCs. They had secured only 5331 posts in Class I services out of 97,951 posts. In Class II services the BCs had secured only 5052 posts out of 1,40,223 posts whereas the forward castes constituting 17.5% of the population have knocked down 75,585 posts in Class I services and 1,06,283 posts in Class II sevices.

It is a shame for the Backward Classes, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in India who constitue 83% of the total Indian population, are left with a paltry number of posts as on 1.11.2008 in Central Services i.e., during a period of 58 years of the implementation of the Indian Constitution.

As such we appeal to the Backward Classes, Scheduled Classes and Scheduled Tribes leaders, members of Parliament, members of legislatures, the employees, teachers and students to think aloud about the mentality of the Indian ruling classes consitituing only 17.5% of the total population and come forward to launch a vigorous awakening movement in all parts of India and launch agitation demanding that the government of India should come forward to amend the constitution making provision for distribution of all the 100% of places in education and employment among all the segments of the Indian population and distributing the total quantum to all the segments of the population in proportion to their respective strength of each segment, before the end of October 2011.

The Marxist Periyarist Communist Party has come forward to launch an awakening movement in all parts of Tamilnadu in September-October 2011.

It had urged the Government of India to amend the constitution as adumbrated above before 31st October 2011, failing which the cadres belonging to the Marxist Periyarist Communist Party and the All India Federation of BCs, SCs, STs and Religious Minirities will observe the 26th November 2011, as a Mourning Day and hoist black flags in their respective houses on that day as a symbol of mourning. It has chosen 26th November, since the Constitution was adopted on that day, in 1949.

We earnestly appeal to the BCs, SCs and STs to lend their all out support to make the demand of the Marxist Periyarist Communist Party a successful one by rendering moral, physical and material support


(Photo courtesy: Manorama online)

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0 #1 Ramea 2014-05-09 06:22
Reservation is not only the birth right; it is the only way to select deserving candidates.
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